Yield Observations When Shifting to Earlier Relative Maturity Soybeans

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Yield Observations When Shifting to Earlier Relative Maturity Soybeans -  2021

 

TRIAL OBJECTIVE

  • We continue to see a growing trend of growers planting “early” soybeans and managing them at a higher level with seed treatments and foliar applications of fungicide and insecticide.  This phenomenon, dubbed “RM Shift” is becoming increasingly important in some locations.

  • There are many benefits of planting “early” soybeans including, but not limited to, earlier harvest timing, earlier cover crop seeding, and risk management benefits. 

  • The objective of this study was to determine the yield impact of “early” variety selection against the normal relative maturity varieties for the location.

 

RESEARCH SITE DETAILS

image
 
SITE NOTES:  

  • Trial was divided into 2 sets – North & South 
  • A total of 4 trial locations with 2 North locations and 2 south locations 
    • North Set – Storm Lake and Marble Rock, Iowa 
    • South Set – Atlantic and Victor, Iowa 
  • Each maturity group set consisted of 3 Channel® brand soybean products. 
    • Three early maturity group (MG) soybean products:  
      • North Set – 1.2 to 1.9 MG (1220RXF brand, 1421RXF brand, 1921RXF brand) 
      • South Set – 2.2 to 2.5 MG (2221RXF brand, 2321RXF brand, 2521RXF brand) 
    • Three normal maturity group soybean products: 
      • North Set – 2.2 to 2.5 MG (2221RXF brand, 2321RXF brand, 2521RXF brand)
      • South Set – 2.7 to 3.4 MG (2721RXF brand, 3222RXF brand, 3421RXF brand) 
  • Plot size, replications, and row spacings varied depending on location. 
    • Storm Lake (2 replications)—6 rows at 20-inch spacing 
    • Atlantic (3 replications)—8 rows at 30-inch spacing 
    • Marble Rock (3 replications)—6 rows at 30 -inch spacing 
    • Victor (2 replications)—8 rows at 30-inch spacing  
  • Rainfall in 2021 was timely and arrived during the soybean reproductive stages across all locations. 

UNDERSTANDING THE RESULTS

  • With earlier planting dates in 2021 and rainfall events from late June through September, the effects of maturity group on soybean yield potential pointed to a clear yield advantage for the Normal maturity group set at all locations. 

  • The north locations normal MG set had an 8 bushel/acre advantage over the early MG set (Figure 1) and in the southern locations the normal MG set had a 6 bushel/acre advantage over the early MG set (Figure 2).

     

image Figure 1. Effect of maturity group (MG) on Channel® brand soybean product performance in northern Iowa (2021).
image Figure 2. Effect of maturity group (MG) on Channel® brand soybean product performance in southern Iowa (2021).

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR YOUR FARM?

  • In this study, the early MG soybean products averaged 6 to 8 bushel per acre less than normal MG soybean products with a range of 4 to 11 bushel per acre less than normal MG products.

  • Late season rainfall in 2021 was ideal, providing ample moisture during reproductive stages to maximize yield potential especially for the normal MG soybean products varieties at all locations. 

  • More research needs to be done in the genetic pipeline to better understand which soybean products will move south.

  • It should be noted that shifting to an earlier MG group may not be for every operation and that benefits could be defined in terms other than yield such as early harvest and establishment of cover crop. 

 
 
 
 
3011_R10_21

Yield Observations When Shifting to Earlier Relative Maturity Soybeans -  2020

 

TRIAL OBJECTIVE

  • We continue to see a growing trend for soybean growers to plant “early” soybean products and manage them at a higher level with seed treatments and foliar applications of fungicide and insecticide. This phenomenon, dubbed “relative maturity (RM) shift” is becoming increasingly important in some locations.

  • There are many benefits of planting “early” soybeans including, but not limited to, earlier harvest timing, earlier cover crop seeding, and risk management benefits. 

  • The objective of this study was to determine the yield impact of planting “early” RM soybean products compared to planting normal RM products for the location.

 

RESEARCH SITE DETAILS

image
 
SITE NOTES:  

 

  • The trial consisted of two sets – North and South. 
  • There were five locations planted: 
    • North set – Storm Lake, and Marble Rock 
    • South set – Huxley, Atlantic, and Victor 
  • Each set consisted of three unique soybean products. 
    • 3 soybean products were considered early RM for the location: 
      • North set – 1.2 to 1.8 RM 
      • South set – 1.9 to 2.4 RM 
    • 3 soybean products were considered normal RM for the location: 
      • North set – 1.9 to 2.4 RM 
      • South set – 2.9 to 3.7 RM 
    • The 1.9 to 2.4 RM group consisted of the same three soybean products for both of the North and South sets. 
  • The trial included a mix of plot sizes, replications (reps), and row spacings: 
    • Storm Lake (2 reps): six row strips with 20-inch row spacing 
    • Atlantic (2 reps) and Marble Rock (3 reps): four row strips with 30-inch row spacing 
    • Huxley (2 reps): six row strips with 30-inch row spacing 
    • Victor (1 rep): eight row strips with 30-inch row spacing  
  • Average rainfall during the growing season was very low compared to long term averages with 3 to 15 inches less rainfall, depending on location. 
  • Marble Rock was impacted the least with 3 inches less and Atlantic the most with 15 inches less rainfall.  

 

UNDERSTANDING THE RESULTS

  • With earlier planting dates in 2020 and rainfall events in September, the effects of RM selection on average soybean yield pointed to a clear yield advantage for the normal RM group. 

  • The North set normal RM group had a 7 bu/acre advantage over the early RM group (Figure 1) and the South set normal RM group had a 13 bu/acre advantage over the early RM group (Figure 2).

 
image Figure 1. Relative maturity effects on the yield performance of Channel® soybean products North set at Storm Lake and Marble Rock, IA in 2020.
image Figure 2. Relative maturity effects on the yield performance of Channel® soybean products South set at Huxley, Atlantic, and Victor, IA in 2020.

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR YOUR FARM?

 
  • In 2020, early RM soybean products yielded, on average, 7 to 13 bu/acre less than normal RM soybean products and ranged between +4 to 21 bu/acre less than normal RM soybean products for both locations.

  • In 2020, late season rainfall was less than ideal. The lack of adequate rainfall in July and August quickly finished off the early RM group, while the early September rains helped the normal RM group maximize pod fill.

  • More research should be conducted in the genetic pipeline to better understand which soybean products can be grown south of their typical production area.

  • It should be noted that a RM shift may not be applicable for every operation and any potential benefits can be defined in terms other than yield.

 
 
 
 
3011_R10_20

Yield Observations When Shifting To Earlier Maturity Group Soybean Products - 2019

 

TRIAL OBJECTIVE

  • A growing trend for soybean growers is to plant “early” soybean products (south of their normal adaptation) earlier in the season and managing them at a higher level with seed treatments and foliar applications of fungicide and insecticide.  This phenomenon, dubbed “relative maturity (RM) shift” is becoming increasingly important in some locations.
  • There are many benefits of planting “early” soybean products including:
    • Earlier harvest 
    • Earlier cover crop seeding
    • Risk management benefits 
  • The objective of this study was to determine the yield impact of planting “early” (for the location) RM soybean products compared to planting normal RM products for the location.
 

RESEARCH SITE DETAILS

 

  • The trial consisted of two sets – North and South.
  • Each set had three Iowa locations: 
    • North Set – Storm Lake, Marble Rock, and Huxley
    • South Set – Huxley, Atlantic, and Victor
  • Each RM group consisted of three unique Channel® brand soybean products.
    • Three products were considered early RM for the location:  
      • North Set – 1.2 to 1.6 RM
      • South Set – 1.8 to 2.4 RM
    • Three products were considered normal RM for the location: 
      • North Set – 1.8 to 2.4 RM
      • South Set – 2.9 to 3.7 RM
    • The 1.8 to 2.4 RM group consisted of the same three products for both the North and South sets.
  • The trial was a mix of plot sizes, replications (reps), and row spacings:
    • Storm Lake (4 reps)—six row strips, 20-inch spacing
    • Atlantic (2 reps) and Marble Rock (4 reps)—four row strips, 30-inch spacing
    • Huxley (3 reps)—six row strips, 30-inch spacing
    • Victor (2 reps)—eight row strips, 30-inch spacing
  • During the growing season, all sites recorded 20+ inches of rainfall with Atlantic receiving 32 inches total. 
  • The Marble Rock site received several heavy rainfall events. 

 

UNDERSTANDING THE RESULTS

 
  • Delayed planting dates in the spring and late rains in the fall favored the normal RM group at the sites tested in 2019.
  • The normal RM group had a 6.0 bu/acre advantage over the early RM group at the North and South locations (Figures 1 & 2).

 

KEY LEARNINGS

  • In 2019, the early RM products yielded, on average, 6.0 bu/acre less than the normal RM products and yields ranged between 3 to 10 bu/acre less than normal RM products.
  • In 2019, rainfall was plentiful with Marble Rock receiving the heaviest one-time event, and with Atlantic receiving over 32 inches total.
  • The 2019 growing season favored the normal RM products, especially with a few delayed planting dates and excessive late-season rainfall that the normal RM group was able to utilize.
  • More research needs to be conducted in the genetic pipeline to better understand which soybean products can be grown south of their main area of adaptability. 
  • It should be noted that a RM shift may not be for every operation and that its benefits could be defined in terms other than yield.


    3011_R10

Yield Observations When Shifting To Earlier Maturity Group Soybean - 2018

 

TRIAL OBJECTIVE

  • We continue to see a trend of growers planting earlier maturity group (MG) soybeans for the region and managing them at a higher level with seed treatments and foliar applications of fungicide and insecticide. This phenomenon, dubbed “MG shift”, is becoming increasingly important in some locations.
  • There are many benefits of planting early MG soybeans including, but not limited to, earlier harvest timing, earlier cover crop seeding, and risk management benefits.
  • The objective of this trial was to determine the yield impact of early MG soybean product selection against the normal MG products for the location.
 

RESEARCH SITE DETAILS

 

  • This trial was broken into two sets, North and South Iowa, with a total of eight locations – four locations in the north set and four locations in the south set:
    • North Set – Fonda, Storm Lake, Marble Rock North, and Marble Rock South
    • South Set – Huxley, Atlantic, Shenandoah, and Victor
  • Each set consisted of 18 unique soybean products:
    • Nine products are considered early MG
      •  North Set – 1.1 MG to 1.8 MG
      •  South Set – 2.0 MG to 2.4 MG
    • Nine products are considered normal MG
      •  North Set 2.0 MG to 2.4 MG
      •  South Set – 2.9 MG to 3.5 MG
    • The nine 2.0 to 2.4 MG products were the same products for both the north and south sets
  • The plots consisted of four, 15-ft-long rows in 30-in row spacing with three replications.
  • The Shenandoah site exhibited above average levels of frogeye leaf spot and insect feeding.
  • Above average levels of sudden death syndrome were observed at the Victor site.
  • The Marble Rock North site was impacted with hail on August 28th.
 

UNDERSTANDING THE RESULTS

  • The effect of maturity group on soybean yield was variable and highly dependent on the location. For example, Victor saw an 8 bu/acre yield advantage with early MG products, whereas Huxley realized a 7 bu/acre advantage with normal MG products.
  • In general, three locations (Atlantic, Victor, and Storm Late) saw some level of yield advantage with early MG soybean products versus the other locations where normal MG products gained some yield advantage. However, average site performance across all locations was nearly similar at 58 bu/acre.
 

What Does This Mean for Your Farm?

  • In general, early MG soybean products yield close to late MG products, especially when conditions are favorable.
  • In this trial, there were some unfavorable growing conditions (listed below) in the locations where the normal MGs succeeded:
    • Excessive rain, wind, and hail
    • Weathered/delayed harvest
    • Lower management (no R3 growth stage fungicide/insecticide application)
  • Finding the proper genetic package for a maturity group is still critical when considering planting early soybeans.
 
ID 181213100712
 
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